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Le Macaque rhésus (Macaca mulatta), aussi appelé Singe rhésus ou Bandar, est l’une des espèces de singes les plus connues de l’Ancien monde. Comme les autres macaques, les groupes de rhésus comprennent des mâles et des femelles. Le groupe peut compter jusqu’à 180 individus mais la moyenne se situe à une vingtaine. Les femelles sont 4 fois plus nombreuses que les mâles. La hiérarchie sociale est matriarcale (ou matrilinéaire), le rang de chacun dépend de son lien de parenté avec la femelle dominante. Le soin des plus jeunes et la surveillance du territoire sont partagés par les membres du groupe. Si les femelles sont plus ou moins placides, les mâles sont plus turbulents. Les macaques rhésus sont considérés comme des singes bruyants. Le singe qui découvre de la nourriture va normalement avertir le groupe par des cris spécifiques mais on a pu constater que des jeunes ou des dominés évitent de le faire si leur découverte n’a pas été observée par d’autres.

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), also called the Nazuri monkey, is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys. It is listed as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and its tolerance of a broad range of habitats. Native to South, Central and Southeast Asia, troops of Macaca mulatta inhabit a great variety of habitats from grasslands to arid and forested areas, but also close to human settlements. The rhesus macaque is well known to science. Due to its relatively easy upkeep in captivity, wide availability and closeness to humans anatomically and physiologically, it has been used extensively in medical and biological research on human and animal health-related topics. It has given its name to the rhesus factor, one of the elements of a person’s blood group, by the discoverers of the factor, Karl Landsteiner and Alexander Wiener. The rhesus macaque was also used in the well-known experiments on maternal deprivation carried out in the 1950s by controversial comparative psychologist Harry Harlow. Other medical breakthroughs facilitated by the use of the rhesus macaque include:
1) development of the rabies, smallpox, and polio vaccines
2) creation of drugs to manage HIV/AIDS
3) understanding of the female reproductive cycle and development of the embryo and the propagation of embryonic stem cells.

Posted by Fotografik33 – www.fotografik33.com on 2013-12-04 19:46:42

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