Um texto, em português, da Wikipédia:

Hibiscus

Hibiscus L. é um gênero botânico, com cerca de 300 espécies, inserido na família das Malvaceae, com flores e folhas exuberantes. Devido à nova taxonomia pela filogenética (Angiosperm Phylogeny Team), muitas espécies que pertenciam a esse gênero estão migrando para outros gêneros. Por exemplo: Hibiscus esculentus L., a planta do quiabo, agora é Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. O cultivo dos exemplares do gênero, tanto decorative como econômico, está disseminado nas regiões subtropicais e tropicais, cuidando para não sofrerem com geadas e temperaturas baixas constantes.

Etimologia:
Hibiscus significa Ísis (deusa egípcia), em grego.

Sinonímia:

Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Bombycodendron Hassk.
Brockmania W. Fitzg.
Fioria Mattei

Espécies:

Hibiscus acetosella
Hibiscus x archeri (híbrido)
Hibiscus arnottianus
Hibiscus bifurcatus
Hibiscus brackenridgei
Hibiscus calyphyllus
Hibiscus cameronii
Hibiscus cannabinus
Hibiscus chitra
Hibiscus cisplatinus
Hibiscus clayi
Hibiscus coccineus
Hibiscus denisonii
Hibiscus diversifolius
Hibiscus elatus
Hibiscus furcellatus
Hibiscus fuscus
Hibiscus grandiflorus
Hibiscus hastatus
Hibiscus heterophyllus
Hibiscus indicus
Hibiscus kokio
Hibiscus lasiocarpos
Hibiscus lavaterioides
Hibiscus lobatus
Hibiscus ludwigii
Hibiscus macrophyllus

Hibiscus mastersianus
Hibiscus militaris
Hibiscus moscheutos
Hibiscus mutabilis (malva-rosa)
Hibiscus paramutabilis
Hibiscus pedunculatus
Hibiscus pernambucensis (guanxuma-do-mangue)
Hibiscus platanifolius
Hibiscus radiatus
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibisco)
Hibiscus sabdariffa (vinagreira)
Hibiscus schizopetalus (hibisco-crespo)
Hibiscus scottii
Hibiscus sinosyriacus
Hibiscus splendens
Hibiscus syriacus (hibisco-da-síria)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (algodoeiro-da-praia)
Hibiscus trionum (flor-de-todas-as-horas)
Hibiscus waimeae
Hibiscus dioscorides
Hibiscus diriffan
Hibiscus escobariae
Hibiscus noli-tangere
Hibiscus quattenensis
Hibiscus socotranus
Hibiscus stenanthus

Portugal:
Em Portugal este género está representado por 2 espécies, presentes em Portugal Continental, a primeira nativa, a segunda introduzida:one

Hibiscus palustris L.
Hibiscus trionum L.

Classificação do gênero:

Sistema Classificação Referência
Linné Classe Monadelphia, ordem Polyandria Species plantarum (1753)

Papuodendron C. T. White
Pariti Adans.
Talipariti Fryxell
Wilhelminia Hochr.

A textual content, in english, from Wikipedia, the totally free encyclopedia:
Hibiscus
For other uses, see Hibiscus (disambiguation).
Hibiscus
Hibiscus flower TZ.jpg
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Angiosperms
Class: Eudicots
Order: Malvales
Loved ones: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Malvoideae
Tribe: Hibisceae
Genus: Hibiscus
L.
Species

232 species
Synonyms

Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Bombycodendron Hassk.
Brockmania W.Fitzg.
Pariti Adans.
Wilhelminia Hochr.

Hibiscus (/hɨˈbɪskəs/ or /haɪˈbɪskəs/) is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow spouse and children, Malvaceae. It is quite huge, made up of a number of hundred species that are indigenous to heat-temperate, subtropical and tropical locations all over the earth. Member species are frequently pointed out for their showy bouquets and are typically regarded only as hibiscus, or fewer widely regarded as rose mallow. The genus incorporates both of those annual and perennial herbaceous plants, as very well as woody shrubs and tiny trees. The generic name is derived from the Greek term ἱβίσκος (hibískos), which was the name Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40–90) gave to Althaea officinalis.

Description:
The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, frequently with a toothed or lobed margin. The bouquets are huge, conspicuous, trumpet-formed, with 5 or additional petals, shade from white to pink, pink, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm wide. Flower shade in certain species, these kinds of as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, variations with age.[5] The fruit is a dry 5-lobed capsule, made up of a number of seeds in each and every lobe, which are produced when the capsule dehisces (splits open) at maturity. It is of pink and white colors. It is an illustration of complete bouquets.

Makes use of:
Symbolism and lifestyle
Hibiscus species depict nations: Hibiscus syriacus is the nationwide flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the nationwide flower of Malaysia. The hibiscus is the nationwide flower of Haiti. The pink hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, and seems often in depictions of her in the artwork of Bengal, India, frequently with the goddess and the flower merging in sort. The hibiscus is made use of as an presenting to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship.

In the Philippines, the gumamela (local name for hibiscus) is made use of by kids as portion of a bubble-generating pastime. The bouquets and leaves are crushed right up until the sticky juices arrive out. Hollow papaya stalks are then dipped into this and made use of as straws for blowing bubbles.

The hibiscus flower is traditionally worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian ladies. If the flower is worn guiding the remaining ear, the female is married or in a romantic relationship. If the flower is worn on the appropriate, she is single or overtly accessible for a romantic relationship. The hibiscus is Hawaii’s condition flower.

Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her initial novel Purple Hibiscus after the delicate flower.

The bark of the hibiscus contains strong bast fibres that can be acquired by letting the stripped bark established in the sea to enable the organic material rot absent.

Landscaping
Many species are developed for their showy bouquets or made use of as landscape shrubs, and are made use of to catch the attention of butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.

Paper
One particular species of Hibiscus, regarded as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is extensively made use of in paper-generating.

Beverage
Major post: Hibiscus tea

The tea manufactured of hibiscus bouquets is regarded by a lot of names in a lot of international locations close to the earth and is served both of those hot and cold. The beverage is very well regarded for its shade, tanginess and taste.

It is regarded as bissap in West Africa, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Honduras (the flower being flor de jamaica) and gudhal (गुड़हल) in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a common name for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica, Trinidad and a lot of other islands in the Caribbean, the consume is regarded as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa not to be confused with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the common name sorrel). In Ghana, the consume is regarded as soobolo in one particular of the local languages.

Roselle is ordinarily boiled in an enamel-coated huge stock pot as most West Indians believe the metallic from aluminum, steel or copper pots will destroy the normal minerals and natural vitamins.[quotation desired]

In Cambodia, a cold beverage can be organized by initial steeping the petals in hot drinking water right up until the shades are leached from the petals, then including lime juice (which turns the beverage from darkish brown/pink to a shiny pink), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and ultimately cold drinking water/ice cubes.

In Egypt,[quotation desired] Sudan and the Arab earth, hibiscus tea is regarded as karkadé (كركديه), and is served as both of those a hot and a cold consume.

Foodstuff
Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is frequently a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and made use of as a garnish.

The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is made use of as a vegetable. The species Hibiscus suratensis Linn synonymous to Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don is pointed out in Visayas Philippines being a souring component for just about all local veggies and menus. Identified as Labog in the Visayan spot, (or Labuag/Sapinit in Tagalog), the species is a extremely fantastic component in cooking indigenous chicken soup. Specified species of hibiscus are also starting to be made use of additional widely as a normal source of foods coloring (E163),[quotation desired] and substitute of Red #3 / E127.

Hibiscus species are made use of as foods plants by the larvae of some Lepidopteran species, including Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.

Health added benefits
The tea is popular as a normal diuretic it contains vitamin C and minerals, and is made use of traditionally as a mild medicine.

A 2008 USDA study exhibits consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood pressure in a group of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive grownups. 3 cups of tea day-to-day resulted in an regular drop of eight.one mmHg in their systolic blood pressure, as opposed to a one.3 mmHg drop in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Review individuals with bigger blood pressure readings (129 or earlier mentioned) had a increased response to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood pressure went down by 13.2 mmHg. These facts help the strategy that consuming hibiscus tea in an sum readily included into the eating plan could perform a part in managing blood pressure, even though additional investigate is required.

Reports have shown the anti-hypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa in both of those individuals and animals. It has been proposed that the antihypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa is because of to its angiotensin-changing enzyme inhibiting exercise. In a randomized, managed clinical trial involving 39 sufferers with mild to average hypertension, Captopril was as opposed to an extract of H. sabdariffa for antihypertensive effects. Topics using an extract of H.sabdariffa, eaten day-to-day prior to breakfast for four weeks, identified reduction in blood pressure related to Captopril. Another randomized, placebo clinical trial involving 54 study individuals with average hypertension shown a reduction in both of those systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Even so upon discontinuation of treatment method, both of those systolic and diastolic blood pressures ended up subsequently elevated.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a amount of medical uses in Chinese herbology. Lokapure s.g.et al. their investigate implies some opportunity in cosmetic skin care for illustration, an extract from the bouquets of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been demonstrated to perform as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.

In the Indian conventional procedure of medicine, Ayurveda, hibiscus, specially white hibiscus and pink hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is regarded to have medicinal houses. The roots are made use of to make different concoctions thought to heal ailments these kinds of as cough, hair reduction or hair greying. As a hair treatment method, the bouquets are boiled in oil alongside with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and bouquets are floor into a fantastic paste with a very little drinking water, and the resulting lathery paste is made use of as a shampoo moreover conditioner.

Hibiscus tea also contains bioflavonoids, which are thought to assistance reduce an improve in LDL cholesterol, which can improve the buildup of plaque in the arteries.

A past animal study shown the effects of H.sabdariffa extract on atherosclerosis in rabbits. Notably, a reduction in triglyceride, cholesterol, and lower-density lipoprotein was observed in rabbits consuming a large cholesterol eating plan (HCD) in addition to H.sabdariffa extract as opposed to rabbits only fed HCD, suggesting a helpful outcome.[16] In addition, the H. sabdariffa seed is ample in phytosterol and tocopherol, plant forms of cholesterol that have antioxidant and LDL cholesterol reducing effects.

Safeguards and Contraindications:

Pregnancy and Lactation
When the system is not very well recognized, past animal studies have shown both of those an inhibitory outcome of H. sabdariffa on muscle tone and the anti-fertility effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, respectively. The extract of H. sabdariffa has been demonstrated to promote contraction of the rat bladder and uterus the H.rosa-sinensis extract has exhibited contraceptive effects in the sort of estrogen exercise in rats. These conclusions have not been observed in individuals. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is also considered to have emmenagogue effects which can promote menstruation and, in some ladies, cause an abortion. Because of to the documented adverse effects in animal studies and the claimed pharmacological houses, the H. sabdariffa and H.rosa-sinensis are not advisable for use in the course of pregnancy. Moreover, they are not advisable while breastfeeding because of to the deficiency of trustworthy info on its security and use.

Contraindications
No contraindications have been identified.

Adverse Effects
Drug Interactions
It is postulated that H. sabdariffa interacts with diclofenac, chloroquine and acetaminophen by altering the pharmacokinetics. In healthy human volunteers, the H. sabdariffa extract was identified to minimize the excretion of diclofenac upon co-administration. Moreover, co-administration of Karkade (H. sabdariffa), a common Sudanese beverage, was identified to minimize chloroquine bioavailability. Even so, no statistically considerable variations ended up observed in the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen when administered with the Zobo (H.sabdariffa) consume. Additional studies are desired to exhibit clinical importance.

Species:
In temperate zones, most likely the most typically developed decorative species is Hibiscus syriacus, the common back garden hibiscus, also regarded in some parts as the “Rose of Althea” or “Rose of Sharon” (but not to be confused with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum, also called “Rose of Sharon”). In tropical and subtropical parts, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its a lot of showy hybrids, is the most popular hibiscus.

A number of hundred species are regarded, including:

Hibiscis acapulcensis
Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern.—False Roselle
Hibiscus acicularis
Hibiscus aculeatus—Comfortroot
Hibiscus altissimus
Hibiscus andongensis
Hibiscus angolensis
Hibiscus aponeurus[26]
Hibiscus archeri—Archer’s Hibiscus
Hibiscus aridicola
Hibiscus arnottianus A.Gray—Kokiʻo ʻula (Hawaii)
Hibiscus asper—Bush Roselle
Hibiscus austroyunnanensis
Hibiscus barbosae
Hibiscus benguellensis
Hibiscus berberidifolius
Hibiscus bernieri
Hibiscus bifurcatus—Fork-bracted Rosemallow
Hibiscus biseptus—Arizona Rosemallow
Hibiscus bojerianus
Hibiscus boryanus—Foulsapate Marron
Hibiscus brackenridgei A.Gray—Hawaiian hibiscus Maʻo hau hele
Hibiscus burtt-davyi
Hibiscus caerulescens
Hibiscus caesius—Dark-eyed Hibiscus (South Africa)
Hibiscus calyphyllus—Lemonyellow Rosemallow (Tropical Africa)
Hibiscus cameronii—Cameron’s Hibiscus, Pink Hibiscus
Hibiscus cannabinus L.—Kenaf
Hibiscus castroi
Hibiscus cisplatinus—Rosa Del Rio
Hibiscus citrinus-
Hibiscus clayi O.Deg. & I.Deg.—Hawaiian pink hibiscus (Hawaii)
Hibiscus clypeatus—Congo Mahoe
Hibiscus coccineus (Medik.) Walter—Scarlet Rosemallow
Hibiscus colimensis
Hibiscus columnaris—Mahot Rempart
Hibiscus comoensis
Hibiscus congestiflorus
Hibiscus costatus
Hibiscus coulteri—Desert Rosemallow
Hibiscus cuanzensis
Hibiscus dasycalyx—Neches River Rosemallow
Hibiscus denudatus Benth.—Pale Face (Southwestern United States, Northwestern Mexico)
Hibiscus dimidiatus
Hibiscus dioscorides A.G.Mill. (es/pt) (Yemen)
Hibiscus diplocrater
Hibiscus diriffan A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
Hibiscus diversifolius—Swamp Hibiscus
Hibiscus dongolensis
Hibiscus donianus
Hibiscus elatus—Mahoe
Hibiscus elegans
Hibiscus engleri—Wild Hibiscus
Hibiscus escobariae
Hibiscus excellii
Hibiscus ferrugineus
Hibiscus ficalhoanus
Hibiscus flavoroseus
Hibiscus fragilis DC.—Mandrinette (Mascarene Islands)
Hibiscus fragrans
Hibiscus fritzscheae
Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.—Lindenleaf rosemallow (Caribbean, Florida, Central The united states, South The united states, Hawaii)
Hibiscus fugosioides
Hibiscus furcellatus—Salad Hibiscus
Hibiscus fuscus

Hibiscus genevii Bojer (Mauritius)
Hibiscus gilletii
Hibiscus gossweileri
Hibiscus grandidieri
Hibiscus grandiflorus Michx.—Swamp rosemallow (Southeastern United States)
Hibiscus grandistipulatus
Hibiscus grewiifolius
Hibiscus hamabo
Hibiscus hastatus
Hibiscus heterophyllus—Native rosella
Hibiscus hirtus—Lesser Mallow
Hibiscus hispidissimus
Hibiscus huellensis
Hibiscus hybridus
Hibiscus indicus
Hibiscus insularis Endl.—Phillip Island hibiscus (Phillip Island)
Hibiscus integrifolius
Hibiscus jaliscensis
Hibiscus kochii
Hibiscus kokio—Red Rosemallow
Hibiscus labordei
Hibiscus laevis All. (=H. militaris)—Halberd-leaved rosemallow (central and eastern North The united states)
Hibiscus lasiocarpos—Woolly Rosemallow
Hibiscus lasiococcus
Hibiscus lavaterioides
Hibiscus laxiflorus
Hibiscus leptocladus ([Northwest Australia])
Hibiscus leviseminus
Hibiscus lilacinus—Lilac Hibiscus
Hibiscus liliiflorus—Rodrigues Tree Hibiscus
Hibiscus longifolius
Hibiscus longisepalus
Hibiscus ludwigii
Hibiscus lunariifolius
Hibiscus macrogonus
Hibiscus macrophyllus—Largeleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus macropodus
Hibiscus makinoi—Okinawan Hibiscus
Hibiscus malacophyllus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus malacospermus
Hibiscus martianus—Heartleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus moscheutos Welw. ex Hiern.—Crimsoneyed Rosemallow (Central and Eastern North The united states)
Hibiscus mutabilis L.—Cotton Rosemallow, Confederate Rose (East Asia)
Hibiscus paramutabilis
Hibiscus pedunculatus
Hibiscus pernambucensis—Seaside Mahoe
Hibiscus phoeniceus—Brazilian Rosemallow
Hibiscus platanifolius
Hibiscus quattenensis
Hibiscus poeppigii—Poeppig’s Rosemallow
Hibiscus radiatus—Monarch Rosemallow
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.—Chinese hibiscus (East Asia)
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.—Roselle, Omutete, or Sorrel
Hibiscus schizopetalus—Fringed Rosemallow
Hibiscus scottii
Hibiscus socotranus
Hibiscus sinosyriacus
Hibiscus splendens
Hibiscus stenanthus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus striatus—Striped Rosemallow
Hibiscus syriacus L. (Sort species)—Rose of Sharon (Asia)
Hibiscus tiliaceus L.—Sea hibiscus (Australia, Southeast Asia, Oceania)
Hibiscus trilobus—Threelobe Rosemallow
Hibiscus trionum L.—Flower-of-an-Hour
Hibiscus vitifolius—Tropical Rose Mallow
Hibiscus waimeae A.Heller—Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo (Hawaii)

Posted by Flávio Cruvinel Brandão on 2015-01-twenty 01:11:27

Tagged: , Série , Séries , Collection , Flor , Flores , Flower , Bouquets , Fiori , Cor , Shade , Colours , Vibrant , Colorida , Cores , Brasília , Brasil , Brazil , Natureza , Naturaleza , Nature , Animal , Animals , Animais , Flávio Brandão

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