Um texto, em português, da Wikipédia:
Hibiscus L. é um gênero botânico, com cerca de 300 espécies, inserido na família das Malvaceae, com flores e folhas exuberantes. Devido à nova taxonomia pela filogenética (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group), muitas espécies que pertenciam a esse gênero estão migrando para outros gêneros. Por exemplo: Hibiscus esculentus L., a planta do quiabo, agora é Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. O cultivo dos exemplares do gênero, tanto decorative como econômico, está disseminado nas regiões subtropicais e tropicais, cuidando para não sofrerem com geadas e temperaturas baixas constantes.
Hibiscus significa Ísis (deusa egípcia), em grego.
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Brockmania W. Fitzg.
Hibiscus x archeri (híbrido)
Hibiscus mutabilis (malva-rosa)
Hibiscus pernambucensis (guanxuma-do-mangue)
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibisco)
Hibiscus sabdariffa (vinagreira)
Hibiscus schizopetalus (hibisco-crespo)
Hibiscus syriacus (hibisco-da-síria)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (algodoeiro-da-praia)
Hibiscus trionum (flor-de-todas-as-horas)
Em Portugal este género está representado por two espécies, presentes em Portugal Continental, a primeira nativa, a segunda introduzida:1
Hibiscus palustris L.
Hibiscus trionum L.
Classificação do gênero:
Sistema Classificação Referência
Linné Classe Monadelphia, ordem Polyandria Species plantarum (1753)
Papuodendron C. T. White
A text, in english, from Wikipedia, the no cost encyclopedia:
For other employs, see Hibiscus (disambiguation).
Hibiscus flower TZ.jpg
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Hibiscus (/hɨˈbɪskəs/ or /haɪˈbɪskəs/) is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow spouse and children, Malvaceae. It is really massive, made up of several hundred species that are native to warm-temperate, subtropical and tropical areas in the course of the planet. Member species are usually famous for their showy flowers and are frequently known only as hibiscus, or less extensively known as rose mallow. The genus features the two yearly and perennial herbaceous plants, as perfectly as woody shrubs and smaller trees. The generic identify is derived from the Greek term ἱβίσκος (hibískos), which was the identify Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40–90) gave to Althaea officinalis.
The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, usually with a toothed or lobed margin. The flowers are massive, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped, with five or extra petals, coloration from white to pink, pink, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm broad. Flower coloration in sure species, these kinds of as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, changes with age. The fruit is a dry five-lobed capsule, made up of several seeds in each and every lobe, which are introduced when the capsule dehisces (splits open up) at maturity. It is of pink and white colours. It is an illustration of finish flowers.
Takes advantage of:
Symbolism and tradition
Hibiscus species symbolize nations: Hibiscus syriacus is the nationwide flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the nationwide flower of Malaysia. The hibiscus is the nationwide flower of Haiti. The pink hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, and appears often in depictions of her in the artwork of Bengal, India, usually with the goddess and the flower merging in type. The hibiscus is utilised as an offering to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship.
In the Philippines, the gumamela (regional identify for hibiscus) is utilised by little ones as portion of a bubble-generating pastime. The flowers and leaves are crushed till the sticky juices appear out. Hollow papaya stalks are then dipped into this and utilised as straws for blowing bubbles.
The hibiscus flower is ordinarily worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian girls. If the flower is worn guiding the left ear, the woman is married or in a partnership. If the flower is worn on the right, she is single or overtly out there for a partnership. The hibiscus is Hawaii’s condition flower.
Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her to start with novel Purple Hibiscus after the fragile flower.
The bark of the hibiscus has sturdy bast fibres that can be obtained by letting the stripped bark set in the sea to let the natural substance rot absent.
Quite a few species are grown for their showy flowers or utilised as landscape shrubs, and are utilised to appeal to butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.
One species of Hibiscus, known as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is extensively utilised in paper-generating.
Principal article: Hibiscus tea
The tea built of hibiscus flowers is known by numerous names in numerous countries around the planet and is served the two scorching and cold. The beverage is perfectly known for its coloration, tanginess and flavor.
It is known as bissap in West Africa, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Honduras (the flower being flor de jamaica) and gudhal (गुड़हल) in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a frequent identify for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica, Trinidad and numerous other islands in the Caribbean, the consume is known as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa not to be puzzled with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the frequent identify sorrel). In Ghana, the consume is known as soobolo in 1 of the regional languages.
Roselle is usually boiled in an enamel-coated massive stock pot as most West Indians imagine the metal from aluminum, steel or copper pots will wipe out the organic minerals and natural vitamins.[citation essential]
In Cambodia, a cold beverage can be ready by to start with steeping the petals in scorching water till the colors are leached from the petals, then incorporating lime juice (which turns the beverage from darkish brown/pink to a vivid pink), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and lastly cold water/ice cubes.
In Egypt,[citation essential] Sudan and the Arab planet, hibiscus tea is known as karkadé (كركديه), and is served as the two a scorching and a cold consume.
Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is usually a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and utilised as a garnish.
The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is utilised as a vegetable. The species Hibiscus suratensis Linn synonymous to Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don is famous in Visayas Philippines being a souring component for pretty much all regional vegetables and menus. Known as Labog in the Visayan place, (or Labuag/Sapinit in Tagalog), the species is a quite good component in cooking native chicken soup. Specified species of hibiscus are also starting to be utilised extra extensively as a organic supply of meals coloring (E163),[citation essential] and substitute of Red #3 / E127.
Hibiscus species are utilised as meals plants by the larvae of some Lepidopteran species, which includes Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.
Health positive aspects
The tea is popular as a organic diuretic it has vitamin C and minerals, and is utilised ordinarily as a mild medicine.
A 2008 USDA research displays consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood force in a group of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive older people. 3 cups of tea each day resulted in an common fall of eight.1 mmHg in their systolic blood force, in comparison to a 1.3 mmHg fall in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Study individuals with larger blood force readings (129 or over) had a greater response to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood force went down by 13.two mmHg. These info assist the idea that ingesting hibiscus tea in an sum conveniently included into the diet plan may perhaps engage in a purpose in managing blood force, even though extra analysis is needed.
Reports have shown the anti-hypertensive results of H. sabdariffa in the two individuals and animals. It has been proposed that the antihypertensive results of H. sabdariffa is due to its angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting activity. In a randomized, managed scientific trial involving 39 sufferers with mild to moderate hypertension, Captopril was in comparison to an extract of H. sabdariffa for antihypertensive results. Subjects using an extract of H.sabdariffa, eaten each day just before breakfast for 4 months, located reduction in blood force comparable to Captopril. A different randomized, placebo scientific trial involving 54 research individuals with moderate hypertension shown a reduction in the two systolic and diastolic blood force. Even so on discontinuation of treatment method, the two systolic and diastolic blood pressures had been subsequently elevated.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a amount of medical employs in Chinese herbology. Lokapure s.g.et al. their analysis suggests some likely in beauty skin care for illustration, an extract from the flowers of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been revealed to functionality as an anti-photo voltaic agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.
In the Indian conventional process of medicine, Ayurveda, hibiscus, specifically white hibiscus and pink hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is considered to have medicinal attributes. The roots are utilised to make various concoctions thought to cure illnesses these kinds of as cough, hair loss or hair greying. As a hair treatment method, the flowers are boiled in oil together with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and flowers are ground into a good paste with a little water, and the resulting lathery paste is utilised as a shampoo as well as conditioner.
Hibiscus tea also has bioflavonoids, which are thought to enable reduce an raise in LDL cholesterol, which can raise the buildup of plaque in the arteries.
A preceding animal research shown the results of H.sabdariffa extract on atherosclerosis in rabbits. Notably, a reduction in triglyceride, cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein was noticed in rabbits consuming a significant cholesterol diet plan (HCD) in addition to H.sabdariffa extract in comparison to rabbits only fed HCD, suggesting a beneficial impact. On top of that, the H. sabdariffa seed is considerable in phytosterol and tocopherol, plant kinds of cholesterol that have antioxidant and LDL cholesterol decreasing results.
Safeguards and Contraindications:
Pregnancy and Lactation
When the mechanism is not perfectly comprehended, preceding animal scientific studies have shown the two an inhibitory impact of H. sabdariffa on muscle tone and the anti-fertility results of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, respectively. The extract of H. sabdariffa has been revealed to promote contraction of the rat bladder and uterus the H.rosa-sinensis extract has exhibited contraceptive results in the type of estrogen activity in rats. These findings have not been noticed in individuals. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is also believed to have emmenagogue results which can promote menstruation and, in some girls, cause an abortion. Due to the documented adverse results in animal scientific studies and the noted pharmacological attributes, the H. sabdariffa and H.rosa-sinensis are not advised for use for the duration of being pregnant. Moreover, they are not advised although breastfeeding due to the absence of trusted information and facts on its safety and use.
No contraindications have been recognized.
It is postulated that H. sabdariffa interacts with diclofenac, chloroquine and acetaminophen by altering the pharmacokinetics. In healthy human volunteers, the H. sabdariffa extract was located to lower the excretion of diclofenac on co-administration. Moreover, co-administration of Karkade (H. sabdariffa), a frequent Sudanese beverage, was located to lower chloroquine bioavailability. Even so, no statistically significant changes had been noticed in the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen when administered with the Zobo (H.sabdariffa) consume. Further scientific studies are essential to demonstrate scientific significance.
In temperate zones, possibly the most frequently grown decorative species is Hibiscus syriacus, the frequent backyard hibiscus, also known in some spots as the “Rose of Althea” or “Rose of Sharon” (but not to be puzzled with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum, also called “Rose of Sharon”). In tropical and subtropical spots, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its numerous showy hybrids, is the most popular hibiscus.
Numerous hundred species are known, which includes:
Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern.—False Roselle
Hibiscus archeri—Archer’s Hibiscus
Hibiscus arnottianus A.Gray—Kokiʻo ʻula (Hawaii)
Hibiscus asper—Bush Roselle
Hibiscus bifurcatus—Fork-bracted Rosemallow
Hibiscus biseptus—Arizona Rosemallow
Hibiscus boryanus—Foulsapate Marron
Hibiscus brackenridgei A.Gray—Hawaiian hibiscus Maʻo hau hele
Hibiscus caesius—Dark-eyed Hibiscus (South Africa)
Hibiscus calyphyllus—Lemonyellow Rosemallow (Tropical Africa)
Hibiscus cameronii—Cameron’s Hibiscus, Pink Hibiscus
Hibiscus cannabinus L.—Kenaf
Hibiscus cisplatinus—Rosa Del Rio
Hibiscus clayi O.Deg. & I.Deg.—Hawaiian pink hibiscus (Hawaii)
Hibiscus clypeatus—Congo Mahoe
Hibiscus coccineus (Medik.) Walter—Scarlet Rosemallow
Hibiscus columnaris—Mahot Rempart
Hibiscus coulteri—Desert Rosemallow
Hibiscus dasycalyx—Neches River Rosemallow
Hibiscus denudatus Benth.—Pale Experience (Southwestern United States, Northwestern Mexico)
Hibiscus dioscorides A.G.Mill. (es/pt) (Yemen)
Hibiscus diriffan A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
Hibiscus diversifolius—Swamp Hibiscus
Hibiscus engleri—Wild Hibiscus
Hibiscus fragilis DC.—Mandrinette (Mascarene Islands)
Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.—Lindenleaf rosemallow (Caribbean, Florida, Central America, South America, Hawaii)
Hibiscus furcellatus—Salad Hibiscus
Hibiscus genevii Bojer (Mauritius)
Hibiscus grandiflorus Michx.—Swamp rosemallow (Southeastern United States)
Hibiscus heterophyllus—Native rosella
Hibiscus hirtus—Lesser Mallow
Hibiscus insularis Endl.—Phillip Island hibiscus (Phillip Island)
Hibiscus kokio—Red Rosemallow
Hibiscus laevis All. (=H. militaris)—Halberd-leaved rosemallow (central and japanese North America)
Hibiscus lasiocarpos—Woolly Rosemallow
Hibiscus leptocladus ([Northwest Australia])
Hibiscus lilacinus—Lilac Hibiscus
Hibiscus liliiflorus—Rodrigues Tree Hibiscus
Hibiscus macrophyllus—Largeleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus makinoi—Okinawan Hibiscus
Hibiscus malacophyllus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus martianus—Heartleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus moscheutos Welw. ex Hiern.—Crimsoneyed Rosemallow (Central and Eastern North America)
Hibiscus mutabilis L.—Cotton Rosemallow, Accomplice Rose (East Asia)
Hibiscus pernambucensis—Seaside Mahoe
Hibiscus phoeniceus—Brazilian Rosemallow
Hibiscus poeppigii—Poeppig’s Rosemallow
Hibiscus radiatus—Monarch Rosemallow
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.—Chinese hibiscus (East Asia)
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.—Roselle, Omutete, or Sorrel
Hibiscus schizopetalus—Fringed Rosemallow
Hibiscus stenanthus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus striatus—Striped Rosemallow
Hibiscus syriacus L. (Sort species)—Rose of Sharon (Asia)
Hibiscus tiliaceus L.—Sea hibiscus (Australia, Southeast Asia, Oceania)
Hibiscus trilobus—Threelobe Rosemallow
Hibiscus trionum L.—Flower-of-an-Hour
Hibiscus vitifolius—Tropical Rose Mallow
Hibiscus waimeae A.Heller—Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo (Hawaii)
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