Um texto, em português, da Wikipédia:
Hibiscus L. é um gênero botânico, com cerca de 300 espécies, inserido na família das Malvaceae, com flores e folhas exuberantes. Devido à nova taxonomia pela filogenética (Angiosperm Phylogeny Team), muitas espécies que pertenciam a esse gênero estão migrando para outros gêneros. Por exemplo: Hibiscus esculentus L., a planta do quiabo, agora é Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. O cultivo dos exemplares do gênero, tanto decorative como econômico, está disseminado nas regiões subtropicais e tropicais, cuidando para não sofrerem com geadas e temperaturas baixas constantes.
Hibiscus significa Ísis (deusa egípcia), em grego.
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Brockmania W. Fitzg.
Hibiscus x archeri (híbrido)
Hibiscus mutabilis (malva-rosa)
Hibiscus pernambucensis (guanxuma-do-mangue)
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibisco)
Hibiscus sabdariffa (vinagreira)
Hibiscus schizopetalus (hibisco-crespo)
Hibiscus syriacus (hibisco-da-síria)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (algodoeiro-da-praia)
Hibiscus trionum (flor-de-todas-as-horas)
Em Portugal este género está representado por two espécies, presentes em Portugal Continental, a primeira nativa, a segunda introduzida:1
Hibiscus palustris L.
Hibiscus trionum L.
Classificação do gênero:
Sistema Classificação Referência
Linné Classe Monadelphia, ordem Polyandria Species plantarum (1753)
Papuodendron C. T. White
A text, in english, from Wikipedia, the free of charge encyclopedia:
For other uses, see Hibiscus (disambiguation).
Hibiscus flower TZ.jpg
Loved ones: Malvaceae
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Hibiscus (/hɨˈbɪskəs/ or /haɪˈbɪskəs/) is a genus of flowering crops in the mallow family members, Malvaceae. It is very huge, made up of numerous hundred species that are native to heat-temperate, subtropical and tropical regions all over the earth. Member species are generally observed for their showy flowers and are commonly known only as hibiscus, or a lot less extensively known as rose mallow. The genus features the two annual and perennial herbaceous crops, as properly as woody shrubs and small trees. The generic identify is derived from the Greek word ἱβίσκος (hibískos), which was the identify Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40–90) gave to Althaea officinalis.
The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, generally with a toothed or lobed margin. The flowers are huge, conspicuous, trumpet-formed, with 5 or more petals, shade from white to pink, crimson, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm wide. Flower shade in specified species, this sort of as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, changes with age. The fruit is a dry 5-lobed capsule, made up of numerous seeds in each and every lobe, which are produced when the capsule dehisces (splits open) at maturity. It is of crimson and white colours. It is an example of entire flowers.
Symbolism and tradition
Hibiscus species stand for nations: Hibiscus syriacus is the countrywide flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the countrywide flower of Malaysia. The hibiscus is the countrywide flower of Haiti. The crimson hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, and appears regularly in depictions of her in the art of Bengal, India, generally with the goddess and the flower merging in type. The hibiscus is used as an featuring to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship.
In the Philippines, the gumamela (nearby identify for hibiscus) is used by kids as section of a bubble-producing pastime. The flowers and leaves are crushed until finally the sticky juices come out. Hollow papaya stalks are then dipped into this and used as straws for blowing bubbles.
The hibiscus flower is typically worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian girls. If the flower is worn powering the remaining ear, the lady is married or in a connection. If the flower is worn on the suitable, she is single or openly accessible for a connection. The hibiscus is Hawaii’s state flower.
Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her initial novel Purple Hibiscus soon after the sensitive flower.
The bark of the hibiscus incorporates robust bast fibres that can be obtained by allowing the stripped bark established in the sea to let the organic and natural substance rot absent.
Numerous species are developed for their showy flowers or used as landscape shrubs, and are used to appeal to butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.
One particular species of Hibiscus, known as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is extensively used in paper-producing.
Principal post: Hibiscus tea
The tea produced of hibiscus flowers is known by lots of names in lots of international locations all around the earth and is served the two incredibly hot and cold. The beverage is properly known for its shade, tanginess and flavor.
It is known as bissap in West Africa, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Honduras (the flower becoming flor de jamaica) and gudhal (गुड़हल) in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a frequent identify for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica, Trinidad and lots of other islands in the Caribbean, the drink is known as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa not to be puzzled with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the frequent identify sorrel). In Ghana, the drink is known as soobolo in just one of the nearby languages.
Roselle is usually boiled in an enamel-coated huge stock pot as most West Indians believe the steel from aluminum, metal or copper pots will damage the all-natural minerals and natural vitamins.[citation essential]
In Cambodia, a cold beverage can be geared up by initial steeping the petals in incredibly hot h2o until finally the colors are leached from the petals, then adding lime juice (which turns the beverage from dark brown/crimson to a dazzling crimson), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and finally cold h2o/ice cubes.
In Egypt,[citation essential] Sudan and the Arab earth, hibiscus tea is known as karkadé (كركديه), and is served as the two a incredibly hot and a cold drink.
Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is generally a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and used as a garnish.
The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is used as a vegetable. The species Hibiscus suratensis Linn synonymous to Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don is observed in Visayas Philippines becoming a souring ingredient for nearly all nearby greens and menus. Recognised as Labog in the Visayan area, (or Labuag/Sapinit in Tagalog), the species is a pretty superior ingredient in cooking native hen soup. Specific species of hibiscus are also starting to be used more extensively as a all-natural source of food coloring (E163),[citation essential] and alternative of Red #three / E127.
Hibiscus species are used as food crops by the larvae of some Lepidopteran species, like Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.
The tea is well known as a all-natural diuretic it incorporates vitamin C and minerals, and is used typically as a moderate drugs.
A 2008 USDA review demonstrates consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood force in a group of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive grownups. 3 cups of tea each day resulted in an typical drop of eight.1 mmHg in their systolic blood force, in contrast to a 1.three mmHg drop in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Study members with larger blood force readings (129 or over) experienced a bigger response to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood force went down by thirteen.two mmHg. These data support the idea that consuming hibiscus tea in an sum quickly incorporated into the eating plan might perform a part in controlling blood force, whilst more research is demanded.
Studies have demonstrated the anti-hypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa in the two human beings and animals. It has been proposed that the antihypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa is thanks to its angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting action. In a randomized, controlled clinical trial involving 39 people with moderate to reasonable hypertension, Captopril was in contrast to an extract of H. sabdariffa for antihypertensive effects. Topics getting an extract of H.sabdariffa, consumed each day in advance of breakfast for 4 weeks, identified reduction in blood force equivalent to Captopril. Another randomized, placebo clinical trial involving 54 review members with reasonable hypertension demonstrated a reduction in the two systolic and diastolic blood force. However upon discontinuation of treatment, the two systolic and diastolic blood pressures ended up subsequently elevated.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a variety of medical uses in Chinese herbology. Lokapure s.g.et al. their research indicates some opportunity in beauty pores and skin care for example, an extract from the flowers of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been demonstrated to perform as an anti-photo voltaic agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.
In the Indian conventional technique of drugs, Ayurveda, hibiscus, primarily white hibiscus and crimson hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is viewed as to have medicinal attributes. The roots are used to make various concoctions considered to overcome ailments this sort of as cough, hair decline or hair greying. As a hair treatment, the flowers are boiled in oil along with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and flowers are floor into a fantastic paste with a very little h2o, and the resulting lathery paste is used as a shampoo as well as conditioner.
Hibiscus tea also incorporates bioflavonoids, which are considered to assist prevent an enhance in LDL cholesterol, which can enhance the buildup of plaque in the arteries.
A preceding animal review demonstrated the effects of H.sabdariffa extract on atherosclerosis in rabbits. Notably, a reduction in triglyceride, cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein was observed in rabbits consuming a high cholesterol eating plan (HCD) in addition to H.sabdariffa extract in contrast to rabbits only fed HCD, suggesting a helpful effect.[sixteen] Moreover, the H. sabdariffa seed is abundant in phytosterol and tocopherol, plant forms of cholesterol that have antioxidant and LDL cholesterol reducing effects.
Safety measures and Contraindications:
Pregnancy and Lactation
Though the mechanism is not properly recognized, preceding animal research have demonstrated the two an inhibitory effect of H. sabdariffa on muscle mass tone and the anti-fertility effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, respectively. The extract of H. sabdariffa has been demonstrated to stimulate contraction of the rat bladder and uterus the H.rosa-sinensis extract has exhibited contraceptive effects in the type of estrogen action in rats. These conclusions have not been observed in human beings. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is also imagined to have emmenagogue effects which can stimulate menstruation and, in some women, result in an abortion. Thanks to the documented adverse effects in animal research and the documented pharmacological attributes, the H. sabdariffa and H.rosa-sinensis are not advised for use all through pregnancy. In addition, they are not advised though breastfeeding thanks to the absence of reputable data on its safety and use.
No contraindications have been discovered.
It is postulated that H. sabdariffa interacts with diclofenac, chloroquine and acetaminophen by altering the pharmacokinetics. In healthy human volunteers, the H. sabdariffa extract was identified to minimize the excretion of diclofenac upon co-administration. In addition, co-administration of Karkade (H. sabdariffa), a frequent Sudanese beverage, was identified to minimize chloroquine bioavailability. However, no statistically significant changes ended up observed in the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen when administered with the Zobo (H.sabdariffa) drink. Additional research are essential to show clinical importance.
In temperate zones, likely the most commonly developed decorative species is Hibiscus syriacus, the frequent back garden hibiscus, also known in some parts as the “Rose of Althea” or “Rose of Sharon” (but not to be puzzled with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum, also referred to as “Rose of Sharon”). In tropical and subtropical parts, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its lots of showy hybrids, is the most well known hibiscus.
Various hundred species are known, like:
Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern.—False Roselle
Hibiscus archeri—Archer’s Hibiscus
Hibiscus arnottianus A.Gray—Kokiʻo ʻula (Hawaii)
Hibiscus asper—Bush Roselle
Hibiscus bifurcatus—Fork-bracted Rosemallow
Hibiscus biseptus—Arizona Rosemallow
Hibiscus boryanus—Foulsapate Marron
Hibiscus brackenridgei A.Gray—Hawaiian hibiscus Maʻo hau hele
Hibiscus caesius—Dark-eyed Hibiscus (South Africa)
Hibiscus calyphyllus—Lemonyellow Rosemallow (Tropical Africa)
Hibiscus cameronii—Cameron’s Hibiscus, Pink Hibiscus
Hibiscus cannabinus L.—Kenaf
Hibiscus cisplatinus—Rosa Del Rio
Hibiscus clayi O.Deg. & I.Deg.—Hawaiian crimson hibiscus (Hawaii)
Hibiscus clypeatus—Congo Mahoe
Hibiscus coccineus (Medik.) Walter—Scarlet Rosemallow
Hibiscus columnaris—Mahot Rempart
Hibiscus coulteri—Desert Rosemallow
Hibiscus dasycalyx—Neches River Rosemallow
Hibiscus denudatus Benth.—Pale Experience (Southwestern United States, Northwestern Mexico)
Hibiscus dioscorides A.G.Mill. (es/pt) (Yemen)
Hibiscus diriffan A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
Hibiscus diversifolius—Swamp Hibiscus
Hibiscus engleri—Wild Hibiscus
Hibiscus fragilis DC.—Mandrinette (Mascarene Islands)
Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.—Lindenleaf rosemallow (Caribbean, Florida, Central The us, South The us, Hawaii)
Hibiscus furcellatus—Salad Hibiscus
Hibiscus genevii Bojer (Mauritius)
Hibiscus grandiflorus Michx.—Swamp rosemallow (Southeastern United States)
Hibiscus heterophyllus—Native rosella
Hibiscus hirtus—Lesser Mallow
Hibiscus insularis Endl.—Phillip Island hibiscus (Phillip Island)
Hibiscus kokio—Red Rosemallow
Hibiscus laevis All. (=H. militaris)—Halberd-leaved rosemallow (central and eastern North The us)
Hibiscus lasiocarpos—Woolly Rosemallow
Hibiscus leptocladus ([Northwest Australia])
Hibiscus lilacinus—Lilac Hibiscus
Hibiscus liliiflorus—Rodrigues Tree Hibiscus
Hibiscus macrophyllus—Largeleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus makinoi—Okinawan Hibiscus
Hibiscus malacophyllus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus martianus—Heartleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus moscheutos Welw. ex Hiern.—Crimsoneyed Rosemallow (Central and Eastern North The us)
Hibiscus mutabilis L.—Cotton Rosemallow, Accomplice Rose (East Asia)
Hibiscus pernambucensis—Seaside Mahoe
Hibiscus phoeniceus—Brazilian Rosemallow
Hibiscus poeppigii—Poeppig’s Rosemallow
Hibiscus radiatus—Monarch Rosemallow
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.—Chinese hibiscus (East Asia)
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.—Roselle, Omutete, or Sorrel
Hibiscus schizopetalus—Fringed Rosemallow
Hibiscus stenanthus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus striatus—Striped Rosemallow
Hibiscus syriacus L. (Form species)—Rose of Sharon (Asia)
Hibiscus tiliaceus L.—Sea hibiscus (Australia, Southeast Asia, Oceania)
Hibiscus trilobus—Threelobe Rosemallow
Hibiscus trionum L.—Flower-of-an-Hour
Hibiscus vitifolius—Tropical Rose Mallow
Hibiscus waimeae A.Heller—Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo (Hawaii)
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