Um texto, em português, da Wikipédia:

Hibiscus

Hibiscus L. é um gênero botânico, com cerca de 300 espécies, inserido na família das Malvaceae, com flores e folhas exuberantes. Devido à nova taxonomia pela filogenética (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group), muitas espécies que pertenciam a esse gênero estão migrando para outros gêneros. Por exemplo: Hibiscus esculentus L., a planta do quiabo, agora é Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. O cultivo dos exemplares do gênero, tanto ornamental como econômico, está disseminado nas regiões subtropicais e tropicais, cuidando para não sofrerem com geadas e temperaturas baixas constantes.

Etimologia:
Hibiscus significa Ísis (deusa egípcia), em grego.

Sinonímia:

Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Bombycodendron Hassk.
Brockmania W. Fitzg.
Fioria Mattei

Espécies:

Hibiscus acetosella
Hibiscus x archeri (híbrido)
Hibiscus arnottianus
Hibiscus bifurcatus
Hibiscus brackenridgei
Hibiscus calyphyllus
Hibiscus cameronii
Hibiscus cannabinus
Hibiscus chitra
Hibiscus cisplatinus
Hibiscus clayi
Hibiscus coccineus
Hibiscus denisonii
Hibiscus diversifolius
Hibiscus elatus
Hibiscus furcellatus
Hibiscus fuscus
Hibiscus grandiflorus
Hibiscus hastatus
Hibiscus heterophyllus
Hibiscus indicus
Hibiscus kokio
Hibiscus lasiocarpos
Hibiscus lavaterioides
Hibiscus lobatus
Hibiscus ludwigii
Hibiscus macrophyllus

Hibiscus mastersianus
Hibiscus militaris
Hibiscus moscheutos
Hibiscus mutabilis (malva-rosa)
Hibiscus paramutabilis
Hibiscus pedunculatus
Hibiscus pernambucensis (guanxuma-do-mangue)
Hibiscus platanifolius
Hibiscus radiatus
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibisco)
Hibiscus sabdariffa (vinagreira)
Hibiscus schizopetalus (hibisco-crespo)
Hibiscus scottii
Hibiscus sinosyriacus
Hibiscus splendens
Hibiscus syriacus (hibisco-da-síria)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (algodoeiro-da-praia)
Hibiscus trionum (flor-de-todas-as-horas)
Hibiscus waimeae
Hibiscus dioscorides
Hibiscus diriffan
Hibiscus escobariae
Hibiscus noli-tangere
Hibiscus quattenensis
Hibiscus socotranus
Hibiscus stenanthus

Portugal:
Em Portugal este género está representado por 2 espécies, presentes em Portugal Continental, a primeira nativa, a segunda introduzida:one

Hibiscus palustris L.
Hibiscus trionum L.

Classificação do gênero:

Sistema Classificação Referência
Linné Classe Monadelphia, ordem Polyandria Species plantarum (1753)

Papuodendron C. T. White
Pariti Adans.
Talipariti Fryxell
Wilhelminia Hochr.

A textual content, in english, from Wikipedia, the no cost encyclopedia:
Hibiscus
For other employs, see Hibiscus (disambiguation).
Hibiscus
Hibiscus flower TZ.jpg
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Angiosperms
Class: Eudicots
Purchase: Malvales
Spouse and children: Malvaceae
Subfamily: Malvoideae
Tribe: Hibisceae
Genus: Hibiscus
L.
Species

232 species
Synonyms

Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Bombycodendron Hassk.
Brockmania W.Fitzg.
Pariti Adans.
Wilhelminia Hochr.

Hibiscus (/hɨˈbɪskəs/ or /haɪˈbɪskəs/) is a genus of flowering crops in the mallow relatives, Malvaceae. It is fairly big, containing various hundred species that are native to warm-temperate, subtropical and tropical areas through the environment. Member species are frequently pointed out for their showy flowers and are normally regarded simply as hibiscus, or significantly less widely regarded as rose mallow. The genus features equally yearly and perennial herbaceous crops, as effectively as woody shrubs and tiny trees. The generic identify is derived from the Greek phrase ἱβίσκος (hibískos), which was the identify Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40–90) gave to Althaea officinalis.

Description:
The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, frequently with a toothed or lobed margin. The flowers are big, conspicuous, trumpet-formed, with five or much more petals, colour from white to pink, pink, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm broad. Flower colour in specific species, these as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, variations with age.[five] The fruit is a dry five-lobed capsule, containing various seeds in each individual lobe, which are unveiled when the capsule dehisces (splits open up) at maturity. It is of pink and white colors. It is an illustration of finish flowers.

Employs:
Symbolism and society
Hibiscus species represent nations: Hibiscus syriacus is the nationwide flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the nationwide flower of Malaysia. The hibiscus is the nationwide flower of Haiti. The pink hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, and seems frequently in depictions of her in the art of Bengal, India, frequently with the goddess and the flower merging in kind. The hibiscus is applied as an featuring to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship.

In the Philippines, the gumamela (area identify for hibiscus) is applied by small children as element of a bubble-building pastime. The flowers and leaves are crushed right up until the sticky juices arrive out. Hollow papaya stalks are then dipped into this and applied as straws for blowing bubbles.

The hibiscus flower is usually worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian women. If the flower is worn behind the still left ear, the woman is married or in a marriage. If the flower is worn on the proper, she is single or overtly available for a marriage. The hibiscus is Hawaii’s point out flower.

Nigerian creator Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her initially novel Purple Hibiscus soon after the fragile flower.

The bark of the hibiscus incorporates strong bast fibres that can be attained by letting the stripped bark established in the sea to enable the natural and organic material rot absent.

Landscaping
Quite a few species are developed for their showy flowers or applied as landscape shrubs, and are applied to catch the attention of butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.

Paper
One particular species of Hibiscus, regarded as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is extensively applied in paper-building.

Beverage
Primary report: Hibiscus tea

The tea made of hibiscus flowers is regarded by quite a few names in quite a few nations around the world all around the environment and is served equally incredibly hot and chilly. The beverage is effectively regarded for its colour, tanginess and flavor.

It is regarded as bissap in West Africa, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Honduras (the flower remaining flor de jamaica) and gudhal (गुड़हल) in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a widespread identify for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica, Trinidad and quite a few other islands in the Caribbean, the drink is regarded as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa not to be confused with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the widespread identify sorrel). In Ghana, the drink is regarded as soobolo in just one of the area languages.

Roselle is commonly boiled in an enamel-coated big inventory pot as most West Indians imagine the metal from aluminum, metal or copper pots will wipe out the natural minerals and vitamins.[citation required]

In Cambodia, a chilly beverage can be well prepared by initially steeping the petals in incredibly hot drinking water right up until the shades are leached from the petals, then including lime juice (which turns the beverage from darkish brown/pink to a vibrant pink), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and finally chilly drinking water/ice cubes.

In Egypt,[citation required] Sudan and the Arab environment, hibiscus tea is regarded as karkadé (كركديه), and is served as equally a incredibly hot and a chilly drink.

Food items
Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is frequently a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and applied as a garnish.

The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is applied as a vegetable. The species Hibiscus suratensis Linn synonymous to Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don is pointed out in Visayas Philippines remaining a souring ingredient for nearly all area greens and menus. Identified as Labog in the Visayan spot, (or Labuag/Sapinit in Tagalog), the species is a really excellent ingredient in cooking native chicken soup. Sure species of hibiscus are also starting to be applied much more widely as a natural source of meals coloring (E163),[citation required] and substitution of Crimson #3 / E127.

Hibiscus species are applied as meals crops by the larvae of some Lepidopteran species, including Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.

Health positive aspects
The tea is common as a natural diuretic it incorporates vitamin C and minerals, and is applied usually as a moderate drugs.

A 2008 USDA analyze displays consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood force in a team of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults. Three cups of tea daily resulted in an common drop of 8.one mmHg in their systolic blood force, when compared to a one.3 mmHg drop in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Examine members with increased blood force readings (129 or earlier mentioned) experienced a larger response to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood force went down by 13.2 mmHg. These information support the notion that consuming hibiscus tea in an volume conveniently integrated into the food plan could engage in a job in managing blood force, despite the fact that much more study is expected.

Scientific studies have demonstrated the anti-hypertensive outcomes of H. sabdariffa in equally people and animals. It has been proposed that the antihypertensive outcomes of H. sabdariffa is owing to its angiotensin-changing enzyme inhibiting action. In a randomized, controlled medical trial involving 39 people with moderate to reasonable hypertension, Captopril was when compared to an extract of H. sabdariffa for antihypertensive outcomes. Topics having an extract of H.sabdariffa, eaten daily just before breakfast for 4 weeks, observed reduction in blood force similar to Captopril. Another randomized, placebo medical trial involving 54 analyze members with reasonable hypertension demonstrated a reduction in equally systolic and diastolic blood force. Nonetheless on discontinuation of treatment method, equally systolic and diastolic blood pressures were subsequently elevated.

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a variety of medical employs in Chinese herbology. Lokapure s.g.et al. their study signifies some potential in cosmetic skin care for illustration, an extract from the flowers of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been revealed to function as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.

In the Indian classic method of drugs, Ayurveda, hibiscus, particularly white hibiscus and pink hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is thought of to have medicinal properties. The roots are applied to make several concoctions considered to cure conditions these as cough, hair reduction or hair greying. As a hair treatment method, the flowers are boiled in oil along with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and flowers are ground into a good paste with a tiny drinking water, and the ensuing lathery paste is applied as a shampoo plus conditioner.

Hibiscus tea also incorporates bioflavonoids, which are considered to assistance prevent an enhance in LDL cholesterol, which can enhance the buildup of plaque in the arteries.

A past animal analyze demonstrated the outcomes of H.sabdariffa extract on atherosclerosis in rabbits. Notably, a reduction in triglyceride, cholesterol, and small-density lipoprotein was observed in rabbits consuming a large cholesterol food plan (HCD) in addition to H.sabdariffa extract when compared to rabbits only fed HCD, suggesting a valuable impact.[sixteen] Also, the H. sabdariffa seed is considerable in phytosterol and tocopherol, plant sorts of cholesterol that have antioxidant and LDL cholesterol decreasing outcomes.

Precautions and Contraindications:

Pregnancy and Lactation
Even though the mechanism is not effectively comprehended, past animal scientific tests have demonstrated equally an inhibitory impact of H. sabdariffa on muscle tone and the anti-fertility outcomes of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, respectively. The extract of H. sabdariffa has been revealed to encourage contraction of the rat bladder and uterus the H.rosa-sinensis extract has exhibited contraceptive outcomes in the kind of estrogen action in rats. These results have not been observed in people. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is also assumed to have emmenagogue outcomes which can encourage menstruation and, in some women of all ages, lead to an abortion. Because of to the documented adverse outcomes in animal scientific tests and the described pharmacological properties, the H. sabdariffa and H.rosa-sinensis are not advisable for use through being pregnant. Also, they are not advisable although breastfeeding owing to the lack of trusted information and facts on its safety and use.

Contraindications
No contraindications have been recognized.

Adverse Effects
Drug Interactions
It is postulated that H. sabdariffa interacts with diclofenac, chloroquine and acetaminophen by altering the pharmacokinetics. In healthy human volunteers, the H. sabdariffa extract was observed to minimize the excretion of diclofenac on co-administration. Also, co-administration of Karkade (H. sabdariffa), a widespread Sudanese beverage, was observed to minimize chloroquine bioavailability. Nonetheless, no statistically sizeable variations were observed in the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen when administered with the Zobo (H.sabdariffa) drink. Further scientific tests are required to exhibit medical importance.

Species:
In temperate zones, probably the most normally developed ornamental species is Hibiscus syriacus, the widespread backyard garden hibiscus, also regarded in some spots as the “Rose of Althea” or “Rose of Sharon” (but not to be confused with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum, also known as “Rose of Sharon”). In tropical and subtropical spots, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its quite a few showy hybrids, is the most common hibiscus.

Quite a few hundred species are regarded, including:

Hibiscis acapulcensis
Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern.—False Roselle
Hibiscus acicularis
Hibiscus aculeatus—Comfortroot
Hibiscus altissimus
Hibiscus andongensis
Hibiscus angolensis
Hibiscus aponeurus[26]
Hibiscus archeri—Archer’s Hibiscus
Hibiscus aridicola
Hibiscus arnottianus A.Gray—Kokiʻo ʻula (Hawaii)
Hibiscus asper—Bush Roselle
Hibiscus austroyunnanensis
Hibiscus barbosae
Hibiscus benguellensis
Hibiscus berberidifolius
Hibiscus bernieri
Hibiscus bifurcatus—Fork-bracted Rosemallow
Hibiscus biseptus—Arizona Rosemallow
Hibiscus bojerianus
Hibiscus boryanus—Foulsapate Marron
Hibiscus brackenridgei A.Gray—Hawaiian hibiscus Maʻo hau hele
Hibiscus burtt-davyi
Hibiscus caerulescens
Hibiscus caesius—Dark-eyed Hibiscus (South Africa)
Hibiscus calyphyllus—Lemonyellow Rosemallow (Tropical Africa)
Hibiscus cameronii—Cameron’s Hibiscus, Pink Hibiscus
Hibiscus cannabinus L.—Kenaf
Hibiscus castroi
Hibiscus cisplatinus—Rosa Del Rio
Hibiscus citrinus-
Hibiscus clayi O.Deg. & I.Deg.—Hawaiian pink hibiscus (Hawaii)
Hibiscus clypeatus—Congo Mahoe
Hibiscus coccineus (Medik.) Walter—Scarlet Rosemallow
Hibiscus colimensis
Hibiscus columnaris—Mahot Rempart
Hibiscus comoensis
Hibiscus congestiflorus
Hibiscus costatus
Hibiscus coulteri—Desert Rosemallow
Hibiscus cuanzensis
Hibiscus dasycalyx—Neches River Rosemallow
Hibiscus denudatus Benth.—Pale Facial area (Southwestern United States, Northwestern Mexico)
Hibiscus dimidiatus
Hibiscus dioscorides A.G.Mill. (es/pt) (Yemen)
Hibiscus diplocrater
Hibiscus diriffan A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
Hibiscus diversifolius—Swamp Hibiscus
Hibiscus dongolensis
Hibiscus donianus
Hibiscus elatus—Mahoe
Hibiscus elegans
Hibiscus engleri—Wild Hibiscus
Hibiscus escobariae
Hibiscus excellii
Hibiscus ferrugineus
Hibiscus ficalhoanus
Hibiscus flavoroseus
Hibiscus fragilis DC.—Mandrinette (Mascarene Islands)
Hibiscus fragrans
Hibiscus fritzscheae
Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.—Lindenleaf rosemallow (Caribbean, Florida, Central The usa, South The usa, Hawaii)
Hibiscus fugosioides
Hibiscus furcellatus—Salad Hibiscus
Hibiscus fuscus

Hibiscus genevii Bojer (Mauritius)
Hibiscus gilletii
Hibiscus gossweileri
Hibiscus grandidieri
Hibiscus grandiflorus Michx.—Swamp rosemallow (Southeastern United States)
Hibiscus grandistipulatus
Hibiscus grewiifolius
Hibiscus hamabo
Hibiscus hastatus
Hibiscus heterophyllus—Native rosella
Hibiscus hirtus—Lesser Mallow
Hibiscus hispidissimus
Hibiscus huellensis
Hibiscus hybridus
Hibiscus indicus
Hibiscus insularis Endl.—Phillip Island hibiscus (Phillip Island)
Hibiscus integrifolius
Hibiscus jaliscensis
Hibiscus kochii
Hibiscus kokio—Red Rosemallow
Hibiscus labordei
Hibiscus laevis All. (=H. militaris)—Halberd-leaved rosemallow (central and japanese North The usa)
Hibiscus lasiocarpos—Woolly Rosemallow
Hibiscus lasiococcus
Hibiscus lavaterioides
Hibiscus laxiflorus
Hibiscus leptocladus ([Northwest Australia])
Hibiscus leviseminus
Hibiscus lilacinus—Lilac Hibiscus
Hibiscus liliiflorus—Rodrigues Tree Hibiscus
Hibiscus longifolius
Hibiscus longisepalus
Hibiscus ludwigii
Hibiscus lunariifolius
Hibiscus macrogonus
Hibiscus macrophyllus—Largeleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus macropodus
Hibiscus makinoi—Okinawan Hibiscus
Hibiscus malacophyllus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus malacospermus
Hibiscus martianus—Heartleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus moscheutos Welw. ex Hiern.—Crimsoneyed Rosemallow (Central and Japanese North The usa)
Hibiscus mutabilis L.—Cotton Rosemallow, Confederate Rose (East Asia)
Hibiscus paramutabilis
Hibiscus pedunculatus
Hibiscus pernambucensis—Seaside Mahoe
Hibiscus phoeniceus—Brazilian Rosemallow
Hibiscus platanifolius
Hibiscus quattenensis
Hibiscus poeppigii—Poeppig’s Rosemallow
Hibiscus radiatus—Monarch Rosemallow
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.—Chinese hibiscus (East Asia)
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.—Roselle, Omutete, or Sorrel
Hibiscus schizopetalus—Fringed Rosemallow
Hibiscus scottii
Hibiscus socotranus
Hibiscus sinosyriacus
Hibiscus splendens
Hibiscus stenanthus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus striatus—Striped Rosemallow
Hibiscus syriacus L. (Style species)—Rose of Sharon (Asia)
Hibiscus tiliaceus L.—Sea hibiscus (Australia, Southeast Asia, Oceania)
Hibiscus trilobus—Threelobe Rosemallow
Hibiscus trionum L.—Flower-of-an-Hour
Hibiscus vitifolius—Tropical Rose Mallow
Hibiscus waimeae A.Heller—Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo (Hawaii)

Posted by Flávio Cruvinel Brandão on 2015-01-sixteen 00:09:24

Tagged: , Série , Séries , Sequence , Flor , Flores , Flower , Flowers , Fiori , Cor , Color , Hues , Colorful , Colorida , Cores , Brasília , Brasil , Brazil , Natureza , Naturaleza , Nature , Animal , Animals , Animais , Flávio Brandão , Hibisco , Hibiscos , Hibiscus , Macro , Macros

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