Um texto, em português, da Wikipédia:
Hibiscus L. é um gênero botânico, com cerca de 300 espécies, inserido na família das Malvaceae, com flores e folhas exuberantes. Devido à nova taxonomia pela filogenética (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group), muitas espécies que pertenciam a esse gênero estão migrando para outros gêneros. Por exemplo: Hibiscus esculentus L., a planta do quiabo, agora é Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. O cultivo dos exemplares do gênero, tanto decorative como econômico, está disseminado nas regiões subtropicais e tropicais, cuidando para não sofrerem com geadas e temperaturas baixas constantes.
Hibiscus significa Ísis (deusa egípcia), em grego.
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Brockmania W. Fitzg.
Hibiscus x archeri (híbrido)
Hibiscus mutabilis (malva-rosa)
Hibiscus pernambucensis (guanxuma-do-mangue)
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibisco)
Hibiscus sabdariffa (vinagreira)
Hibiscus schizopetalus (hibisco-crespo)
Hibiscus syriacus (hibisco-da-síria)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (algodoeiro-da-praia)
Hibiscus trionum (flor-de-todas-as-horas)
Em Portugal este género está representado por 2 espécies, presentes em Portugal Continental, a primeira nativa, a segunda introduzida:1
Hibiscus palustris L.
Hibiscus trionum L.
Classificação do gênero:
Sistema Classificação Referência
Linné Classe Monadelphia, ordem Polyandria Species plantarum (1753)
Papuodendron C. T. White
A textual content, in english, from Wikipedia, the totally free encyclopedia:
For other takes advantage of, see Hibiscus (disambiguation).
Hibiscus flower TZ.jpg
Loved ones: Malvaceae
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Hibiscus (/hɨˈbɪskəs/ or /haɪˈbɪskəs/) is a genus of flowering crops in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is quite massive, made up of quite a few hundred species that are native to heat-temperate, subtropical and tropical regions during the planet. Member species are frequently mentioned for their showy flowers and are usually recognised basically as hibiscus, or fewer extensively recognised as rose mallow. The genus involves both of those once-a-year and perennial herbaceous crops, as nicely as woody shrubs and little trees. The generic title is derived from the Greek phrase ἱβίσκος (hibískos), which was the title Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40–90) gave to Althaea officinalis.
The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, frequently with a toothed or lobed margin. The flowers are massive, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped, with 5 or extra petals, coloration from white to pink, purple, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm broad. Flower coloration in specific species, these kinds of as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, changes with age.[five] The fruit is a dry 5-lobed capsule, made up of quite a few seeds in each lobe, which are produced when the capsule dehisces (splits open) at maturity. It is of purple and white colours. It is an case in point of comprehensive flowers.
Takes advantage of:
Symbolism and culture
Hibiscus species signify nations: Hibiscus syriacus is the nationwide flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the nationwide flower of Malaysia. The hibiscus is the nationwide flower of Haiti. The purple hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, and seems usually in depictions of her in the art of Bengal, India, frequently with the goddess and the flower merging in variety. The hibiscus is made use of as an providing to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship.
In the Philippines, the gumamela (area title for hibiscus) is made use of by young children as portion of a bubble-building pastime. The flowers and leaves are crushed right up until the sticky juices arrive out. Hollow papaya stalks are then dipped into this and made use of as straws for blowing bubbles.
The hibiscus flower is ordinarily worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian ladies. If the flower is worn at the rear of the remaining ear, the girl is married or in a romance. If the flower is worn on the ideal, she is one or brazenly offered for a romance. The hibiscus is Hawaii’s point out flower.
Nigerian creator Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her initial novel Purple Hibiscus just after the sensitive flower.
The bark of the hibiscus contains robust bast fibres that can be obtained by allowing the stripped bark set in the sea to let the organic materials rot absent.
Many species are grown for their showy flowers or made use of as landscape shrubs, and are made use of to catch the attention of butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.
A single species of Hibiscus, recognised as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is thoroughly made use of in paper-building.
Most important short article: Hibiscus tea
The tea made of hibiscus flowers is recognised by many names in many nations around the world close to the planet and is served both of those scorching and cold. The beverage is nicely recognised for its coloration, tanginess and taste.
It is recognised as bissap in West Africa, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Honduras (the flower getting flor de jamaica) and gudhal (गुड़हल) in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a typical title for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica, Trinidad and many other islands in the Caribbean, the drink is recognised as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa not to be baffled with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the typical title sorrel). In Ghana, the drink is recognised as soobolo in 1 of the area languages.
Roselle is commonly boiled in an enamel-coated massive stock pot as most West Indians feel the steel from aluminum, metal or copper pots will wipe out the natural minerals and vitamins.[quotation essential]
In Cambodia, a cold beverage can be geared up by initial steeping the petals in scorching water right up until the colours are leached from the petals, then adding lime juice (which turns the beverage from dim brown/purple to a shiny purple), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and last but not least cold water/ice cubes.
In Egypt,[quotation essential] Sudan and the Arab planet, hibiscus tea is recognised as karkadé (كركديه), and is served as both of those a scorching and a cold drink.
Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is frequently a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and made use of as a garnish.
The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is made use of as a vegetable. The species Hibiscus suratensis Linn synonymous to Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don is mentioned in Visayas Philippines getting a souring ingredient for nearly all area veggies and menus. Known as Labog in the Visayan place, (or Labuag/Sapinit in Tagalog), the species is a pretty excellent ingredient in cooking native hen soup. Specified species of hibiscus are also starting to be made use of extra extensively as a natural supply of foods coloring (E163),[quotation essential] and alternative of Red #three / E127.
Hibiscus species are made use of as foods crops by the larvae of some Lepidopteran species, which includes Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.
The tea is well-known as a natural diuretic it contains vitamin C and minerals, and is made use of ordinarily as a moderate medication.
A 2008 USDA research exhibits consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood force in a group of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive grownups. 3 cups of tea every day resulted in an ordinary drop of eight.1 mmHg in their systolic blood force, as opposed to a 1.three mmHg drop in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Review contributors with increased blood force readings (129 or over) experienced a larger reaction to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood force went down by thirteen.2 mmHg. These details assistance the concept that drinking hibiscus tea in an sum readily included into the diet plan may enjoy a position in managing blood force, even though extra research is essential.
Studies have demonstrated the anti-hypertensive results of H. sabdariffa in both of those human beings and animals. It has been proposed that the antihypertensive results of H. sabdariffa is due to its angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibiting exercise. In a randomized, controlled medical trial involving 39 people with moderate to average hypertension, Captopril was as opposed to an extract of H. sabdariffa for antihypertensive results. Subjects having an extract of H.sabdariffa, consumed every day prior to breakfast for four weeks, located reduction in blood force comparable to Captopril. Yet another randomized, placebo medical trial involving 54 research contributors with average hypertension demonstrated a reduction in both of those systolic and diastolic blood force. Having said that on discontinuation of treatment, both of those systolic and diastolic blood pressures were subsequently elevated.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a amount of medical takes advantage of in Chinese herbology. Lokapure s.g.et al. their research suggests some likely in beauty skin treatment for case in point, an extract from the flowers of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been proven to perform as an anti-photo voltaic agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.
In the Indian standard procedure of medication, Ayurveda, hibiscus, specifically white hibiscus and purple hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is considered to have medicinal attributes. The roots are made use of to make a variety of concoctions thought to get rid of conditions these kinds of as cough, hair decline or hair greying. As a hair treatment, the flowers are boiled in oil along with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and flowers are ground into a good paste with a minor water, and the ensuing lathery paste is made use of as a shampoo in addition conditioner.
Hibiscus tea also contains bioflavonoids, which are thought to enable prevent an raise in LDL cholesterol, which can raise the buildup of plaque in the arteries.
A previous animal research demonstrated the results of H.sabdariffa extract on atherosclerosis in rabbits. Notably, a reduction in triglyceride, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein was observed in rabbits consuming a large cholesterol diet plan (HCD) in addition to H.sabdariffa extract as opposed to rabbits only fed HCD, suggesting a advantageous impact.[sixteen] On top of that, the H. sabdariffa seed is ample in phytosterol and tocopherol, plant forms of cholesterol that have antioxidant and LDL cholesterol decreasing results.
Precautions and Contraindications:
Being pregnant and Lactation
Whilst the system is not nicely understood, previous animal research have demonstrated both of those an inhibitory impact of H. sabdariffa on muscle tone and the anti-fertility results of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, respectively. The extract of H. sabdariffa has been proven to stimulate contraction of the rat bladder and uterus the H.rosa-sinensis extract has exhibited contraceptive results in the variety of estrogen exercise in rats. These conclusions have not been observed in human beings. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is also imagined to have emmenagogue results which can stimulate menstruation and, in some ladies, trigger an abortion. Because of to the documented adverse results in animal research and the claimed pharmacological attributes, the H. sabdariffa and H.rosa-sinensis are not advisable for use for the duration of pregnancy. On top of that, they are not advisable when breastfeeding due to the absence of responsible facts on its basic safety and use.
No contraindications have been identified.
It is postulated that H. sabdariffa interacts with diclofenac, chloroquine and acetaminophen by altering the pharmacokinetics. In healthy human volunteers, the H. sabdariffa extract was located to lower the excretion of diclofenac on co-administration. On top of that, co-administration of Karkade (H. sabdariffa), a typical Sudanese beverage, was located to lower chloroquine bioavailability. Having said that, no statistically important changes were observed in the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen when administered with the Zobo (H.sabdariffa) drink. More research are essential to exhibit medical importance.
In temperate zones, likely the most usually grown decorative species is Hibiscus syriacus, the typical back garden hibiscus, also recognised in some spots as the “Rose of Althea” or “Rose of Sharon” (but not to be baffled with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum, also named “Rose of Sharon”). In tropical and subtropical spots, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its many showy hybrids, is the most well-known hibiscus.
Various hundred species are recognised, which includes:
Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern.—False Roselle
Hibiscus archeri—Archer’s Hibiscus
Hibiscus arnottianus A.Gray—Kokiʻo ʻula (Hawaii)
Hibiscus asper—Bush Roselle
Hibiscus bifurcatus—Fork-bracted Rosemallow
Hibiscus biseptus—Arizona Rosemallow
Hibiscus boryanus—Foulsapate Marron
Hibiscus brackenridgei A.Gray—Hawaiian hibiscus Maʻo hau hele
Hibiscus caesius—Dark-eyed Hibiscus (South Africa)
Hibiscus calyphyllus—Lemonyellow Rosemallow (Tropical Africa)
Hibiscus cameronii—Cameron’s Hibiscus, Pink Hibiscus
Hibiscus cannabinus L.—Kenaf
Hibiscus cisplatinus—Rosa Del Rio
Hibiscus clayi O.Deg. & I.Deg.—Hawaiian purple hibiscus (Hawaii)
Hibiscus clypeatus—Congo Mahoe
Hibiscus coccineus (Medik.) Walter—Scarlet Rosemallow
Hibiscus columnaris—Mahot Rempart
Hibiscus coulteri—Desert Rosemallow
Hibiscus dasycalyx—Neches River Rosemallow
Hibiscus denudatus Benth.—Pale Encounter (Southwestern United States, Northwestern Mexico)
Hibiscus dioscorides A.G.Mill. (es/pt) (Yemen)
Hibiscus diriffan A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
Hibiscus diversifolius—Swamp Hibiscus
Hibiscus engleri—Wild Hibiscus
Hibiscus fragilis DC.—Mandrinette (Mascarene Islands)
Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.—Lindenleaf rosemallow (Caribbean, Florida, Central The usa, South The usa, Hawaii)
Hibiscus furcellatus—Salad Hibiscus
Hibiscus genevii Bojer (Mauritius)
Hibiscus grandiflorus Michx.—Swamp rosemallow (Southeastern United States)
Hibiscus heterophyllus—Native rosella
Hibiscus hirtus—Lesser Mallow
Hibiscus insularis Endl.—Phillip Island hibiscus (Phillip Island)
Hibiscus kokio—Red Rosemallow
Hibiscus laevis All. (=H. militaris)—Halberd-leaved rosemallow (central and jap North The usa)
Hibiscus lasiocarpos—Woolly Rosemallow
Hibiscus leptocladus ([Northwest Australia])
Hibiscus lilacinus—Lilac Hibiscus
Hibiscus liliiflorus—Rodrigues Tree Hibiscus
Hibiscus macrophyllus—Largeleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus makinoi—Okinawan Hibiscus
Hibiscus malacophyllus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus martianus—Heartleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus moscheutos Welw. ex Hiern.—Crimsoneyed Rosemallow (Central and Jap North The usa)
Hibiscus mutabilis L.—Cotton Rosemallow, Accomplice Rose (East Asia)
Hibiscus pernambucensis—Seaside Mahoe
Hibiscus phoeniceus—Brazilian Rosemallow
Hibiscus poeppigii—Poeppig’s Rosemallow
Hibiscus radiatus—Monarch Rosemallow
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.—Chinese hibiscus (East Asia)
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.—Roselle, Omutete, or Sorrel
Hibiscus schizopetalus—Fringed Rosemallow
Hibiscus stenanthus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus striatus—Striped Rosemallow
Hibiscus syriacus L. (Kind species)—Rose of Sharon (Asia)
Hibiscus tiliaceus L.—Sea hibiscus (Australia, Southeast Asia, Oceania)
Hibiscus trilobus—Threelobe Rosemallow
Hibiscus trionum L.—Flower-of-an-Hour
Hibiscus vitifolius—Tropical Rose Mallow
Hibiscus waimeae A.Heller—Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo (Hawaii)
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