Um texto, em português, da Wikipédia:
Hibiscus L. é um gênero botânico, com cerca de three hundred espécies, inserido na família das Malvaceae, com flores e folhas exuberantes. Devido à nova taxonomia pela filogenética (Angiosperm Phylogeny Team), muitas espécies que pertenciam a esse gênero estão migrando para outros gêneros. Por exemplo: Hibiscus esculentus L., a planta do quiabo, agora é Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench. O cultivo dos exemplares do gênero, tanto decorative como econômico, está disseminado nas regiões subtropicais e tropicais, cuidando para não sofrerem com geadas e temperaturas baixas constantes.
Hibiscus significa Ísis (deusa egípcia), em grego.
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Brockmania W. Fitzg.
Hibiscus x archeri (híbrido)
Hibiscus mutabilis (malva-rosa)
Hibiscus pernambucensis (guanxuma-do-mangue)
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibisco)
Hibiscus sabdariffa (vinagreira)
Hibiscus schizopetalus (hibisco-crespo)
Hibiscus syriacus (hibisco-da-síria)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (algodoeiro-da-praia)
Hibiscus trionum (flor-de-todas-as-horas)
Em Portugal este género está representado por two espécies, presentes em Portugal Continental, a primeira nativa, a segunda introduzida:one
Hibiscus palustris L.
Hibiscus trionum L.
Classificação do gênero:
Sistema Classificação Referência
Linné Classe Monadelphia, ordem Polyandria Species plantarum (1753)
Papuodendron C. T. White
A text, in english, from Wikipedia, the totally free encyclopedia:
For other makes use of, see Hibiscus (disambiguation).
Hibiscus flower TZ.jpg
Bombycidendron Zoll. & Moritzi
Hibiscus (/hɨˈbɪskəs/ or /haɪˈbɪskəs/) is a genus of flowering vegetation in the mallow family members, Malvaceae. It is pretty significant, made up of several hundred species that are native to heat-temperate, subtropical and tropical areas all over the world. Member species are normally mentioned for their showy bouquets and are typically recognised simply just as hibiscus, or considerably less extensively recognised as rose mallow. The genus includes both once-a-year and perennial herbaceous vegetation, as nicely as woody shrubs and tiny trees. The generic identify is derived from the Greek term ἱβίσκος (hibískos), which was the identify Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40–90) gave to Althaea officinalis.
The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, normally with a toothed or lobed margin. The bouquets are significant, conspicuous, trumpet-formed, with 5 or much more petals, shade from white to pink, crimson, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm broad. Flower shade in certain species, these types of as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, changes with age.[five] The fruit is a dry 5-lobed capsule, made up of several seeds in each lobe, which are launched when the capsule dehisces (splits open) at maturity. It is of crimson and white colors. It is an illustration of complete bouquets.
Symbolism and society
Hibiscus species stand for nations: Hibiscus syriacus is the national flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia. The hibiscus is the national flower of Haiti. The crimson hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, and appears frequently in depictions of her in the artwork of Bengal, India, normally with the goddess and the flower merging in form. The hibiscus is utilised as an supplying to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship.
In the Philippines, the gumamela (area identify for hibiscus) is utilised by kids as aspect of a bubble-producing pastime. The bouquets and leaves are crushed right until the sticky juices arrive out. Hollow papaya stalks are then dipped into this and utilised as straws for blowing bubbles.
The hibiscus flower is ordinarily worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian women. If the flower is worn driving the remaining ear, the woman is married or in a marriage. If the flower is worn on the right, she is single or openly out there for a marriage. The hibiscus is Hawaii’s state flower.
Nigerian writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her 1st novel Purple Hibiscus right after the sensitive flower.
The bark of the hibiscus consists of solid bast fibres that can be obtained by letting the stripped bark set in the sea to let the organic product rot absent.
A lot of species are grown for their showy bouquets or utilised as landscape shrubs, and are utilised to appeal to butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.
Just one species of Hibiscus, recognised as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is thoroughly utilised in paper-producing.
Principal write-up: Hibiscus tea
The tea made of hibiscus bouquets is recognised by several names in several nations around the world close to the world and is served both warm and cold. The beverage is nicely recognised for its shade, tanginess and taste.
It is recognised as bissap in West Africa, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Honduras (the flower currently being flor de jamaica) and gudhal (गुड़हल) in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a common identify for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica, Trinidad and several other islands in the Caribbean, the drink is recognised as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa not to be baffled with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the common identify sorrel). In Ghana, the drink is recognised as soobolo in just one of the area languages.
Roselle is ordinarily boiled in an enamel-coated significant stock pot as most West Indians believe the metallic from aluminum, steel or copper pots will destroy the pure minerals and vitamins.[quotation needed]
In Cambodia, a cold beverage can be geared up by 1st steeping the petals in warm water right until the shades are leached from the petals, then incorporating lime juice (which turns the beverage from darkish brown/crimson to a brilliant crimson), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and ultimately cold water/ice cubes.
In Egypt,[quotation needed] Sudan and the Arab world, hibiscus tea is recognised as karkadé (كركديه), and is served as both a warm and a cold drink.
Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is normally a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and utilised as a garnish.
The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is utilised as a vegetable. The species Hibiscus suratensis Linn synonymous to Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don is mentioned in Visayas Philippines currently being a souring component for practically all area greens and menus. Regarded as Labog in the Visayan location, (or Labuag/Sapinit in Tagalog), the species is a pretty great component in cooking native rooster soup. Selected species of hibiscus are also commencing to be utilised much more extensively as a pure source of foodstuff coloring (E163),[quotation needed] and alternative of Pink #three / E127.
Hibiscus species are utilised as foodstuff vegetation by the larvae of some Lepidopteran species, which includes Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.
The tea is well-known as a pure diuretic it consists of vitamin C and minerals, and is utilised ordinarily as a moderate drugs.
A 2008 USDA research exhibits consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood pressure in a team of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive older people. Three cups of tea everyday resulted in an regular drop of 8.one mmHg in their systolic blood pressure, in comparison to a one.three mmHg drop in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Research participants with larger blood pressure readings (129 or previously mentioned) experienced a better response to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood pressure went down by 13.two mmHg. These information guidance the plan that drinking hibiscus tea in an total quickly integrated into the diet may perhaps enjoy a purpose in controlling blood pressure, while much more research is essential.
Scientific studies have demonstrated the anti-hypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa in both humans and animals. It has been proposed that the antihypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa is because of to its angiotensin-changing enzyme inhibiting activity. In a randomized, controlled medical trial involving 39 patients with moderate to moderate hypertension, Captopril was in comparison to an extract of H. sabdariffa for antihypertensive effects. Topics having an extract of H.sabdariffa, eaten everyday just before breakfast for 4 weeks, observed reduction in blood pressure comparable to Captopril. Yet another randomized, placebo medical trial involving fifty four research participants with moderate hypertension demonstrated a reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. On the other hand on discontinuation of procedure, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were subsequently elevated.
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a variety of medical makes use of in Chinese herbology. Lokapure s.g.et al. their research indicates some probable in cosmetic pores and skin care for illustration, an extract from the bouquets of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been demonstrated to functionality as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.
In the Indian common procedure of drugs, Ayurveda, hibiscus, specially white hibiscus and crimson hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is viewed as to have medicinal qualities. The roots are utilised to make different concoctions thought to get rid of illnesses these types of as cough, hair reduction or hair greying. As a hair procedure, the bouquets are boiled in oil together with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and bouquets are ground into a good paste with a tiny water, and the ensuing lathery paste is utilised as a shampoo as well as conditioner.
Hibiscus tea also consists of bioflavonoids, which are thought to enable avoid an increase in LDL cholesterol, which can increase the buildup of plaque in the arteries.
A preceding animal research demonstrated the effects of H.sabdariffa extract on atherosclerosis in rabbits. Notably, a reduction in triglyceride, cholesterol, and reduced-density lipoprotein was noticed in rabbits consuming a superior cholesterol diet (HCD) in addition to H.sabdariffa extract in comparison to rabbits only fed HCD, suggesting a effective influence. In addition, the H. sabdariffa seed is considerable in phytosterol and tocopherol, plant forms of cholesterol that have antioxidant and LDL cholesterol decreasing effects.
Safety measures and Contraindications:
Pregnancy and Lactation
Even though the mechanism is not nicely recognized, preceding animal experiments have demonstrated both an inhibitory influence of H. sabdariffa on muscle tone and the anti-fertility effects of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, respectively. The extract of H. sabdariffa has been demonstrated to promote contraction of the rat bladder and uterus the H.rosa-sinensis extract has exhibited contraceptive effects in the form of estrogen activity in rats. These conclusions have not been noticed in humans. The Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is also believed to have emmenagogue effects which can promote menstruation and, in some girls, bring about an abortion. Owing to the documented adverse effects in animal experiments and the noted pharmacological qualities, the H. sabdariffa and H.rosa-sinensis are not advisable for use for the duration of pregnancy. Furthermore, they are not advisable even though breastfeeding because of to the lack of reliable facts on its protection and use.
No contraindications have been identified.
It is postulated that H. sabdariffa interacts with diclofenac, chloroquine and acetaminophen by altering the pharmacokinetics. In healthy human volunteers, the H. sabdariffa extract was observed to cut down the excretion of diclofenac on co-administration. Furthermore, co-administration of Karkade (H. sabdariffa), a common Sudanese beverage, was observed to cut down chloroquine bioavailability. On the other hand, no statistically substantial changes were noticed in the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen when administered with the Zobo (H.sabdariffa) drink. Even more experiments are needed to display medical importance.
In temperate zones, most likely the most typically grown decorative species is Hibiscus syriacus, the common yard hibiscus, also recognised in some locations as the “Rose of Althea” or “Rose of Sharon” (but not to be baffled with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum, also identified as “Rose of Sharon”). In tropical and subtropical locations, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its several showy hybrids, is the most well-known hibiscus.
Numerous hundred species are recognised, which includes:
Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern.—False Roselle
Hibiscus archeri—Archer’s Hibiscus
Hibiscus arnottianus A.Gray—Kokiʻo ʻula (Hawaii)
Hibiscus asper—Bush Roselle
Hibiscus bifurcatus—Fork-bracted Rosemallow
Hibiscus biseptus—Arizona Rosemallow
Hibiscus boryanus—Foulsapate Marron
Hibiscus brackenridgei A.Gray—Hawaiian hibiscus Maʻo hau hele
Hibiscus caesius—Dark-eyed Hibiscus (South Africa)
Hibiscus calyphyllus—Lemonyellow Rosemallow (Tropical Africa)
Hibiscus cameronii—Cameron’s Hibiscus, Pink Hibiscus
Hibiscus cannabinus L.—Kenaf
Hibiscus cisplatinus—Rosa Del Rio
Hibiscus clayi O.Deg. & I.Deg.—Hawaiian crimson hibiscus (Hawaii)
Hibiscus clypeatus—Congo Mahoe
Hibiscus coccineus (Medik.) Walter—Scarlet Rosemallow
Hibiscus columnaris—Mahot Rempart
Hibiscus coulteri—Desert Rosemallow
Hibiscus dasycalyx—Neches River Rosemallow
Hibiscus denudatus Benth.—Pale Facial area (Southwestern United States, Northwestern Mexico)
Hibiscus dioscorides A.G.Mill. (es/pt) (Yemen)
Hibiscus diriffan A.G.Mill. (Yemen)
Hibiscus diversifolius—Swamp Hibiscus
Hibiscus engleri—Wild Hibiscus
Hibiscus fragilis DC.—Mandrinette (Mascarene Islands)
Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.—Lindenleaf rosemallow (Caribbean, Florida, Central The usa, South The usa, Hawaii)
Hibiscus furcellatus—Salad Hibiscus
Hibiscus genevii Bojer (Mauritius)
Hibiscus grandiflorus Michx.—Swamp rosemallow (Southeastern United States)
Hibiscus heterophyllus—Native rosella
Hibiscus hirtus—Lesser Mallow
Hibiscus insularis Endl.—Phillip Island hibiscus (Phillip Island)
Hibiscus kokio—Red Rosemallow
Hibiscus laevis All. (=H. militaris)—Halberd-leaved rosemallow (central and jap North The usa)
Hibiscus lasiocarpos—Woolly Rosemallow
Hibiscus leptocladus ([Northwest Australia])
Hibiscus lilacinus—Lilac Hibiscus
Hibiscus liliiflorus—Rodrigues Tree Hibiscus
Hibiscus macrophyllus—Largeleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus makinoi—Okinawan Hibiscus
Hibiscus malacophyllus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus martianus—Heartleaf Rosemallow
Hibiscus moscheutos Welw. ex Hiern.—Crimsoneyed Rosemallow (Central and Eastern North The usa)
Hibiscus mutabilis L.—Cotton Rosemallow, Confederate Rose (East Asia)
Hibiscus pernambucensis—Seaside Mahoe
Hibiscus phoeniceus—Brazilian Rosemallow
Hibiscus poeppigii—Poeppig’s Rosemallow
Hibiscus radiatus—Monarch Rosemallow
Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.—Chinese hibiscus (East Asia)
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.—Roselle, Omutete, or Sorrel
Hibiscus schizopetalus—Fringed Rosemallow
Hibiscus stenanthus Balf.f. (Yemen)
Hibiscus striatus—Striped Rosemallow
Hibiscus syriacus L. (Variety species)—Rose of Sharon (Asia)
Hibiscus tiliaceus L.—Sea hibiscus (Australia, Southeast Asia, Oceania)
Hibiscus trilobus—Threelobe Rosemallow
Hibiscus trionum L.—Flower-of-an-Hour
Hibiscus vitifolius—Tropical Rose Mallow
Hibiscus waimeae A.Heller—Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo (Hawaii)
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